Botany Taekwon-Do

1st Degree, Black Belt syllabus


  • One leg stance (waebal sogi)
  • Parallel stance heaven hand (narani so hanulson)
  • Double stepping (ibo omgyo didigi)
  • Double step turning (ibo omgyo didimyo dolgi)
  • Foot shifting (jajun bal) - both feet


Defensive techniques:

  • Double arc hand block (doo bandal son makgi)
  • Forefist pressing block (ap joomuk noollo makgi)
  • Inner forearm wedging block (an palmok hechyo makgi)
  • Low front block (najunde ap makgi)
  • Low reverse block (najunde bandae makgi)
  • Nine (9) shape block (gutja makgi)
  • Reverse knifehand low guarding block (sonkal dung najunde daebi makgi)

  •  Scooping block (duro makgi)
  •  U-shaped grasp (digutja japgi)


Offensive techniques:

  • Back elbow thrust (dwit palkup tulgi)
  • Backfist front strike (dung joomuk ap taerigi)
  • Horizontal punch (soopyong jirugi)
  • Middle knuckle fist punch (joongji joomuk jirugi)
  • Sidefist downward strike (yop joomuk naeryo taerigi)
  • Twin elbow horizontal thrust (sang palkup soopyong tulgi)
  • Upset punch (dwijibo jirugi)
  • Pressing kick (noollo chagi)


Ground techniques:
Hand technique (son gisool)

  • Ground crosscut (noowo ghutgi)
  • Ground punch (noowo jirugi)
  • Ground strike (noowo taerigi)
  • Ground thrust (noowo tulgi)
  • Holding (bachigi)
  • Checking (momchugi)
  • Covering (karioogi)

Foot technique (bal gisool)

  • Ground checking kick (noowo cha momchugi)
  • Ground crescent kick (noowo bandal chagi)
  • Ground hooking kick (noowo golcho chagi)
  • Ground piercing kick (noowo cha jirugi)
  • Ground smashing kick (noowo cha busigi)
  • Ground thrusting kick (noowo cha tulgi)
  • Ground dodging (noowo pihagi)
  • Knee bending (moorup guburigi)
  • Leg crossing (dari kogi)

c. Theory of Power
The beginning student may ask; "Where does one obtain the power to
create the devastating results attributed to Taekwon- Do?" This power
is attributed to the utilisation of a person's full potential through the
mathematical application of Taekwon-Do techniques. The average
person uses only 10 to 20 percent of his potential. Anyone, regardless
of size, age, or sex who can condition himself to use 100 percent of his
potential can also perform the same destructive techniques.
Though training will certainly result in a superb level of physical fitness,
it will not necessarily result in the acquisition of extraordinary stamina or
superhuman strength. More important, Taekwon-Do training will result
in obtaining a high level of reaction force, concentration, equilibrium,
breath control and speed; these are the factors that will result in a high
degree of physical power.
Reaction Force (bandong ryok)
According to Newton's Law, every force has an equal and opposite
force. When an automobile crashes into a wall with the force of 2,000
pounds, the wall will return a force of 2,000 pounds; or forcing the end
of a seesaw down with a ton of weight will provide an upward force
of the same weight; if your opponent is rushing towards you at a high
speed, by the slightest blow at his head, the force with which you strike
his head would be that of his own onslaught plus that of your blow.
The two forces combined; his, which is large, and yours, which is small
are quite impressive. This, then, is the reaction force from the opponent.
Another reaction force is your own. A punch with the right fist is aided
by pulling back the left fist to the hip.
Concentration (jip joong)
By applying the impact force onto the smallest target area, it will
concentrate the force and therefore, increase its effect. For example,
the force of water coming out of a water hose is greater if the outlet is
smaller. Conversely, the weight of a man spread out on snow shoes
makes hardly any impression on the snow. The blows in Taekwon-Do
are often concentrated onto the edge of the open palm or to the crook
of the fingers.
It is very important that you should not unleash all your strength at the
beginning but gradually, and particularly at the point of contact with
your opponent's body, the force must be so concentrated as to give a
knockout blow. That is to say, the shorter the time for the concentration,
the greater will be the power of the blow. The utmost concentration is
required in order to mobilize every muscle of the body onto the smallest
target area simultaneously.
In conclusion, concentration is done in two ways: one is to concentrate
every muscle of the body, particularly the bigger muscles around the
hip and abdomen (which theoretically are slower than the smaller
muscles of other parts of the body) towards the appropriate tool to
be used at the proper time; the second way is to concentrate such
mobilized muscles onto the opponent's vital spot. This is the reason
why the hip and abdomen are jerked slightly before the hands and feet
in any action, whether it be attack or defence.
Remember, jerking can be executed in two ways: laterally and
Equilibrium (kyun hyung)
Balance is of utmost importance in any type of athletics. In Taekwon-
Do, it deserves special consideration. By keeping the body always
in equilibrium, that is, well balanced, a blow is more effective and
deadly. Conversely, the unbalanced one is easily toppled. The stance
should always be stable yet flexible, for both offensive and defensive
Equilibrium is classified into both dynamic and static stability. They are
so closely interrelated that the maximum force can only be produced
when the static stability is maintained through dynamic stability.
To maintain good equilibrium, the centre of gravity of the stance must
fall on a straight line midway between both legs when the body weight
is distributed equally on both legs, or in the centre of the foot if it is
necessary to concentrate the bulk of body weight on one foot. The
centre of gravity can be adjusted according to body weight. Flexibility
and knee spring are also important in maintaining balance for both
a quick attack and instant recovery. One additional point; the heel of
the rear foot should never be off the ground at the point of impact. This
is not only necessary for good balance but also to produce maximum
power at the point of impact.
Speed (sokdo)
Speed is the most essential factor of force or power. Scientifically, force
equals mass x acceleration (F= ma) or (P= mV2).
According to the theory of kinetic energy, every object increases its
weight as well as speed in a downward movement. This very principle
is applied to this particular art of self-defence. For this reason, at the
moment of impact, the position of the hand normally becomes lower
than the shoulder and the foot lower than the hip while the body is in
the air.
Reaction force, breath control, equilibrium, concentration and relaxation
of the muscles cannot be ignored. However, these are the factors that
contribute to the speed and all these factors, together with flexible
and rhythmic movements, must be well coordinated to produce the
maximum power in Taekwon-Do.
Breath Control (hohup jojul)
Controlled breathing not only affects one's stamina and speed but can
also condition a body to receive a blow and augment the power of a blow
directed against an opponent. Through practice, breath stopped in the
state of exhaling at the critical moment when a blow is landed against a
pressure point on the body can prevent a loss of consciousness and stifle
pain. A sharp exhaling of breath at the moment of impact and stopping
the breath during the execution of a movement tense the abdomen to
concentrate maximum effort on the delivery of the motion, while a slow
inhaling helps the preparation of the next movement. An important rule
to remember: Never inhale while focusing a block or blow against an
opponent. Not only will this impede movement but it will also result in
a loss of power.
Students should also practice disguised breathing to conceal any
outward signs of fatigue. An experienced fighter will certainly press an
attack when he realises his opponent is on the point of exhaustion.
One breath is required for one movement with the exception of a
connecting motion.
Mass (zilyang)
Mathematically, the maximum kinetic energy or force is obtained from
maximum body weight and speed and it is all important that the body
weight be increased during the execution of a blow. No doubt the
maximum body weight is applied with the motion by turning the hip.
The large abdominal muscles are twisted to provide additional body
momentum. Thus the hip rotates in the same direction as that of the
attacking or blocking tool. Another way of increasing body weight is
the utilisation of a springing action of the knee joint. This is achieved by
slightly raising the hip at the beginning of the motion and lowering the
hip at the moment of impact to drop the body weight into the motion.
d. Vital spots
A vital spot in Taekwon-Do is defined as any sensitive or breakable
area on the body vulnerable to an attack. It is essential that a student
of Taekwon-Do has a knowledge of the different spots so that he can
use the proper attacking or blocking tool. Indiscriminate attack is to be
condemned as it is inefficient and wasteful of energy.
1. Skull
2. Temple
3. Bridge of the nose
4. Eyeball
5. Mastrid
6. Mandibula
7. Philtrum
8. Jaw
9. Point of the chin
10. Lips
11. Angle of the mandible
12. Upper neck
13. Adam’s apple
14. Windpipe
15. Clavicle
16. Thenar
17. Radical artery
18. Back wrist artery
19. Wrist joint
20. Shoulder joint
21. Nose
22. Neck artery
23. Sternum
24. Heart
25. Solar plexus
26. Spleen
27. Liver
28. Epigastrium
29. Umbilicus
30. Lower abdomen
31. Pubic region
32. Groin
33. Scrotum
34. Instep
35. Occiput
36. Cervix
37. Upper back
38. Small of the back
39. Kidney
40. Coccyx
41. Fossa
42. Achilles tendon
43. Ankle joint
44. Elbow joint
45. Armpit
46. Floating ribs
47. Knee joint
48. Inner thigh
49. TibiaPatterns-




  • Kwang-Gae Tul – 39 movements
  • Po-Eun Tul – 36 movements
  • Ge-Baek Tul – 44 movements



  • One step sparring (ilbo matsogi)

Own choice of around 6 one step sparring techniques including dodging

techniques. The attacker or the examiner determines the techniques

that the attacker performs. Should demonstrate right and left sides


Free sparring (jayu matsogi)
With partners of own rank and with more senior black belts, plus two
onto one free sparring

Releasing and Locks-


Self defence: On the ground
Non pre-arranged self defence techniques against an attacker or
attackers while on the ground. Approximately 1½ minutes in duration.
A pre-arranged partner is allowed.

 Destruction: Power test:

  • Hand - knifehand strike

Men: 2 boards. Women: 1 board.
Juniors: back piercing kick - 2 boards

  •  Foot - turning kick

Men: 3 boards. Women & Juniors: 2 boards.
Special technique:

  • Flying turning kick - 1 board

Everyone: Top of board at top of head height standing.

  • Flying reverse turning kick - 1 board

Everyone: Top of board at top of head height standing.


Fitness: Fitness test - see appendix D for details



  • All theory contained within the Coloured Belt Techniques Syllabus Handbook

Pattern meanings
Meaning of Kwang-Gae

Kwang-Gae is named after the famous Kwang-Gae-Toh-Wang, the 19th King of the Koguryo Dynasty, who regained all the lost territories including the greater part of Manchuria. The diagram represents the expansion and recovery of lost territory. The 39 movements refer to the first two figures of 391 AD, the year he came to the throne.

Meaning of Po-Eun
Po-Eun is the pseudonym of a loyal subject Chong Mong-Chu (1400)
who was a famous poet and whose poem “I would not serve a second
master though I might be crucified a hundred times” is known to every
Korean. He was also a pioneer in the field of physics. The diagram
represents his unerring loyalty to the king and country towards the end
of the Koryo Dynasty.

Meaning of Ge-Baek
Ge-Baek is named after Ge-Baek, a great general in the Baek Je
Dynasty (660 AD). The diagram represents his severe and strict military discipline.
Meaning of the Black Belt
Opposite to white, therefore, signifying the maturity and proficiency in Taekwon-Do. It also indicates the wearer's imperviousness to darkness and fear.